In 2001, in the Republic of Macedonia, under the mountain peak, Tatickev Kamen in the municipality of Staro Nagorichane, an archaeological site from the Bronze Age was discovered in the development of human civilization. The artifacts found in the archaeological campaigns, as well as the archeo-astronomical analysis in the years that followed, showed that the site has all the features for one mythical holy mountain, but also an ancient observatory. Today this site is known as the Megalith Observatory Kokino or simply Kokino.
Megalith Observatory Kokino is located in the north-east part of Macedonia, near the border with Serbia (precisely: latitude 42 ° 15’47 “, longitude 21 ° 57` 32”). It is located in the area of the village Kokino, on the border with the village Arbanasko. The whole region today is sparsely populated so that in ten of surrounding villages live less than 1,000 inhabitants.
A large number of archaeological sites from the Neolithic to the Middle Ages have been registered in the wider region. This means that the whole region has a history of at least 6,000 years old, filled with significant settlements, shrines, major ancient events and famous historian people.
The Megalith Observatory Kokino is located on two platforms, each of them has its own characteristic elements. The length of the observatory is about 90 meters and the width is about 50 meters. Thrones are the most specific content that you can see on first place. As we have already said, they are made in that way so their direction is north-south, so the man who sits on the throne is oriented towards the east and the eastern horizon. From this came the idea of archaeologists that from this place were observing the astronomical objects that were rising on the horizon. But astronomical measurements and analysis have shown that the thrones are a sacred and ritual place and are not exclusively related to the astronomical observations.
To answer the question of why this place is an ancient observatory, we should recall the basic characteristics of the movement of the Sun and the Moon.
Every watchful observer of the sun can easily notice and mark the places of sunrise in the days of the winter solstice, the spring and autumn equinox, and the summer solstice.
Such stone markers were discovered at the Megalithic observatory Kokino, where the marker of the summer solstice is well preserved, the marker of the spring and autumn equinox is slightly damaged, and the biggest damage is the marker of the winter solstice. These damages probably are related to catastrophic earthquakes.
The moon has a more complicated rotation and the markings at the places of the full Moon’s rising are quite difficult to set it. The simplest way to say it is that during the winter it moves on the sky in places where the Sun is moving in the summertime, and in the summertime, it rotates at places where the sun is moving during the winter time.
These stone markers also exist on the place of the ancient observatory. In order for the site to be an observatory, another very important condition needs to be fulfilled. All seven markers should be viewed from the same place, or the lines that pass through the markers should be cut at one point, which is actually the center point of the observatory and which is also identified on the site.
The arch-astronomical analysis helped precisely to determine the period of construction of the stone markers that signified the rise of the Sun and the moon on the horizon. The analysis showed that stone markers were built around 1800 BC, which means that the Megalith Observatory Kokino is at least 3 800 years old.
The US space agency NASA also accepted all these facts and in 2005 ranked the Megalithic Kokino Observatory on the 4th place on the list of ancient observatories in the world.